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Tag search results for: "psychosis"

Two years ago, we investigated the suicide of a 7-year-old Florida foster child five years after his death, to find out whether officially recommended changes to the state's foster care program had been implemented following the tragedy. Based on records obtained from the Department of Children and Families (DCF) spanning the five-year period after the child's suicide, we concluded nothing had changed. After reviewing the DCF records, psychiatrist and child advocate Dr. Peter Breggin warned then about the foster program's ongoing and dangerous practice of psychotropic polypharmacy: “Whenever you put children on multiple psychiatric drugs you are creating an experiment that is doomed to do more harm than good... We need to stop experimenting on America's children.”


We had hoped by calling attention to the lack of real progress overhauling the Florida foster care program's over-reliance on pills to cure all ills, further tragedies might be prevented. Mission failed.


Recently, a 14-year-old Florida foster child, prescribed a psychotropic cocktail similar to the 7-year-old foster child, committed suicide in a nearly identical manner, only this time streamed live on Facebook.


In 2009, 7-year-old Gabriel Myers hanged himself in the bathroom of his Florida foster home. Toxicology detected amphetamine, fluoxetine and olanzapine in his system. Medical records indicated psychiatrist Dr. Sohail Punjwani prescribed young Gabriel 50mg of the ADHD drug Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate), and 25mg of the antidepressant and antipsychotic combination drug Symbyax (fluoxetine, olanzapine). Although there was was no doubt Gabriel died at his own hand, Broward Deputy Chief Medical Examiner Dr. Stephen Cina did not rule his death a suicide, stating: “It is unclear whether these drugs contributed to this fatality or not.” Dr. Cina noted in his report that neither Symbyax, nor one of its key ingredients olanzapine, also known by the brand name Zyprexa, was approved for use in children; and that “fluoxetine [Prozac] and olanzapine can increase the risk of suicidal ideation in children taking this drug.”


It also came to light that Gabriel was among Florida foster children being used as guinea pigs for pharmaceutical clinical trials. After an investigation into his clinical trial practices, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning letter to Dr. Punjwani, citing violations including failure to protect the rights, safety and welfare of human test subjects; doses exceeding protocol-specified limits; and failure to follow clinical trial plans. Through an executive order, then DCF Secretary George Sheldon instituted a limited prohibition of the shady practice of conducting drug experiments on Florida's foster children.


A recent Canadian study found youth prescribed ADHD drugs were thirteen times more likely to be prescribed antipsychotic medications, and almost four times more likely to be prescribed antidepressant medications than children who were not prescribed ADHD drugs. The study's authors argued that children with ADHD have more psychiatric comordibities than children without ADHD, omitting the exceedingly relevant fact that psychosis and depression are labeled side effects of ADHD drugs. Clearly, the possibility eluded the authors that the increased rates of psychosis and depression observed may not be linked at all to so-called comorbidities of ADHD, but rather to the drugs prescribed to treat ADHD.


Indeed, the Vyvanse label warns: “Vyvanse at recommended doses may cause psychotic or manic symptoms even in patients without prior history of psychotic symptoms or mania.” According to the DSM-5, up to twenty-five percent of all first episodes of psychosis are substance/medication-induced. Likewise, the label for the stimulant drug also warns: “Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation.”


Research suggests drug treatment of ADHD unleashes a domino effect, triggering more psychiatric diagnoses, which in turn lead to risky polypharmacy. The cascading reactions associated with drug treatment of ADHD are especially disturbing, considering many children have been misdiagnosed with ADHD in the first place.


Which leads us to the tragic case of Naika Venant, the 14-year-old Florida foster child who recently hanged herself in the bathroom of her Florida foster home, witnessed in real-time on Facebook Live. Medical records from a medication management visit the month prior to her suicide indicate psychiatrist Dr. Scott Segal increased Naika's doses of Vyvanse and Zoloft (sertraline) to 50mg each.


Like Gabriel, Naika was prescribed 50mg of Vyvanse. Like Gabriel, Naika was also prescribed an antidepressant. Like Gabriel, Naika also hanged herself in the bathroom of a Florida foster home. Almost inconceivably, the medical offices where Gabriel and Naika were treated have the same street address, too. Which leads to an obvious question: Was Naika involved at some point in a clinical drug trial, like Gabriel?


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) records indicate Shire, the manufacturer of Vyvanse, paid the Segal Institute for Clinical Research over three hundred seventy thousand dollars from 2013 to 2015. In response to a complaint alleging Dr. Segal enrolled a subject with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in a schizophrenia study, the FDA previously inspected the site, initially classifying the inspection in the field as requiring voluntary corrective action, a classification subsequently amended at headquarters based on evidence of a dual diagnosis later supplied by Dr. Segal.


Even so, the DCF incident report in response to Naika's suicide does not reflect as favorably on the doctor(s) who prescribed her drugs for ADHD and depression, going so far as to question whether she even had ADHD in the first place, and noting the cascading effect of such a diagnosis:


Lastly, there was a noted concern regarding possible inaccurate and multiple diagnoses. Naika’s primary diagnosis consistently remained Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). An ADHD diagnosis for a child who has suffered trauma, however, comes with its challenges, including how often symptoms of trauma in young children mimic those with ADHD. A psychological evaluation conducted with Naika stated that there is much concern that her attention problems are due to anxiety and trauma rather than ADHD symptomatology and recommended further evaluation to clarify the ADHD diagnosis. However, it does not appear that further evaluation was conducted. In addition to the ADHD diagnosis, Major Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder were given by various treating mental health professionals over the course of Naika’s life. However, limited documentation within the assessments does not appear to support these diagnoses or the medication prescribed [emphasis added]. An additional consideration is the cascading effect of a diagnosis, which drives the development of the treatment plan.


With respect to other suicides noted in its recent Vyvanse pediatric safety review, the FDA seemed to trivialize fatal adverse event reports associated with the drug, chalking them up to comorbidities and teen angst: “It is difficult to perform a causality assessment of suicide-related events and lisdexamfetamine from the postmarketing cases, because of the comorbid conditions... and the prevalence of youth suicides.” Readers familiar with our research published on Mad in America will recognize this FDA Vyvanse pediatric review as the same document the agency retroactively redacted to cover up the homicide of an infant by a child prescribed the stimulant – a day after Shire submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) for a chewable formulation of the drug intended for young children. Nothing to see here, move along.


Children are our most precious resource, and foster kids are among the most vulnerable of them to whom our society owes a special duty of care. As Dr. Breggin pointed out: “These children need to be treasured and protected, and to be given wrap-around loving care. They do not need psychiatric drug interventions, which inflict more neglect and abuse by suppressing their mental functions in order to make them more manageable.”


If the FDA will not fulfill its mandate to seriously investigate pediatric psychotropic fatalities and adequately warn the public of elevated polypharmacy risks, then it's up to us as parents to spread the word ourselves.

Response to Charles Krauthammer's Op-Ed Another massacre, another charade suggesting that psychosis, not guns, is the real cause of mass shootings in America.


On the one hand, Mr. Krauthammer suggests that more aggressive psychiatric intervention might make a difference; and on the other he states that Roseburg shooter Christopher Harper-Mercer "had no psychiatric diagnosis beyond Asperger's."

First, apparently Mr. Krauthammer missed the memo that Asperger's is no longer a psychiatric diagnosis - it was voted out of the latest version of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), published in May 2013.  Many people don't realize that so-called mental disorders are voted in or voted out of American psychiatry's "bible," not scientifically discovered or undiscovered.  Another prominent example of a so-called mental disorder going the way of the dodo by popular vote of American psychiatrists is homosexuality, first included in, then excluded from the DSM.  Referring to the DSM-5, Dr. Thomas Insel, Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), declared,"The weakness is its lack of validity.  Unlike our definitions of ischemic heart disease, lymphoma, or AIDS, the DSM diagnoses are based on a consensus about clusters of clinical symptoms, not any objective laboratory measure... Patients with mental disorders deserve better... That is why NIMH will be re-orienting its research away from DSM categories." ( http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2013/transforming-diagnosis.shtml

American psychiatry's inability to determine with scientific clarity what does or does not constitute a mental disorder is compounded by the fact that the United States is one of only two countries in the world, New Zealand being the other, that allows direct-to-consumer advertising by pharmaceutical companies.  Big Pharma does such a good job of disease-mongering -- often inventing then selling a disorder and creating then funding corresponding "grassroots" advocacy groups (aka "astroturfing") in order to sell their drugs -- that it makes it difficult to take back a mental disorder once it has been invented and sold to the American public. 

The first and most obvious flaw with the wishful thinking that more aggressive psychiatric intervention might make a difference (read prevent) mass shootings in America is that American psychiatry cannot reliably define what a mental disorder is, let alone agree upon and recommend its efficacious treatment.

Second, Mr. Krauthammer can't possibly know for a fact that Mr. Harper-Mercer's only psychiatric diagnosis was Asperger's.  This is a classic example of jumping to conclusions, based on a report of out-of-context online posts by a relative.  It has also been reported that Mr. Harper-Mercer's online alias was "Lithium_love."  It should be noted that if in fact Mr. Harper-Mercer was taking lithium, that drug is indicated for Bipolar Disorder, not Asperger's (or Autism Spectrum Disorder/ASD).  So if Mr. Harper-Mercer was prescribed lithium, he was either diagnosed with Bipolar, or the drug was prescribed to him off-label.  To be sure, off-label prescribing, as well as polypharmacy (ie. prescribing multiple drugs), is rampant in American psychopharmacology, a symptom of the shoot first aim later, trial and error prescribing habits of an industry that has a tough time defining mental illness, much less deciding on how to effectively treat it.  The reality is we will probably never know the extent of Mr. Harper-Mercer's psychiatric diagnoses, or the name, number and doses of the psychotropic medications prescribed to treat them.

Third, Mr. Krauthammer invoked the Naval Shipyard shooter Aaron Alexis as an example of someone whom he suggests did not receive needed psychiatric help.  In fact, Mr. Alexis received psychiatric care from the Department of Veterans Affairs, in the form of a prescription for the antidepressant drug Trazodone ( https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/trazodone-antidepressant-used-by-aaron-alexis-described-as-very-safe/2013/09/18/4336c044-20ae-11e3-966c-9c4293c47ebe_story.html ).  Mr. Alexis went voluntarily to the VA for help with a psychiatric symptom, and pills are what he was given.  This is where we get to the root of the problem, as well as expose one of the biggest myths about mass shooters.

The fact of the matter is that most mass shooters in recent history were under psychiatric care and were prescribed psychotropic medications: e.g. Joseph Wesbecker (Prozac, lithium, trazodone, temazepam), Eric Harris (Luvox), Edward Lutes (Luvox), Jeffrey Weise (Prozac), Steven Kazmierczak (Prozac, Xanax, Ambien), Robert Stewart (Celexa, Xanax), Kipland Kinkel (Prozac, Ritalin), Aaron Alexis (Trazodone), James Holmes (Zoloft, Klonopin), Ivan Lopez-Lopez (Celexa, Wellbutrin, Ambien, Lunesta), Aaron Ybarra (Prozac, Risperdal), Bradley Stone (Risperdal, Trazodone), Elliot Rodger (Xanax), Myron May (Vyvanse, Wellbutrin, Seroquel), etc.

The suggestion that the aforementioned mass shooters were not receiving psychiatric care, and if only they had access to needed psychiatric care then perhaps the tragedies might have been averted, is misleading.  The problem is that in America -- where doctors are paid handsome consulting fees by pharmaceutical companies to pitch their drugs to other doctors, and where the pharmaceutical industry spends approximately $230M per year to influence Congress --  psychiatric care has become synonymous with psychotropic drugging. 

The earlier choice of the words "in recent history" was not accidental, because this tragic mass shooting phenomenon has only been recent in America's history, since the clock tower shooter Charles Whitman (Valium, Dexedrine) killed 16 people on the University of Texas campus.  In an upcoming documentary, Dr. Jean Stolzer points out that "guns have always been in this country since the first Europeans stepped on American shores." (see also https://leoniefennell.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/the-systemic-correlation-between-psychiatric-medications-and-unprovoked-mass-murder-in-america2.pdf )  Likewise, President Obama has pointed out: "The United States does not have a monopoly on crazy people.  It's not the only country that has psychosis.  And yet we kill each other in these mass shootings at rates that are exponentially higher than any place else.  Well, what's the difference?" [NOTE: Most people missed the fact that Mr. Obama's above response was to a question about mass shootings posed via Tumblr by Nick Dineen, residential assistant to UC Santa Barbara mass killing victim George Chen - whom the coroner later determined was killed with a knife, not a gun, like two other of Elliot Rodger's victims.  Mr. Obama's response and Mr. Dineen's question can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDVFs2l6-fo and the coroner's findings that Mr. Chen, Weihan Wang, and Chen Hong each died of multiple stab wounds can be viewed here: http://www.sbsheriff.us/documents/ISLAVISTAINVESTIGATIVESUMMARY.pdf .  This demonstrates how jumping to conclusions based on initial media reports can be problematic.]

Indeed, what's the difference?  Neither guns or psychosis are new or unique to America.  So what has changed? 

What has changed in America and what is unique to our country is the alarming increase in the number of Americans taking psychotropic drugs, which carry FDA-mandated label warnings of serious psychiatric adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation.

For example, a recent study commissioned by the Louisiana Senate ( http://dhh.louisiana.gov/assets/ADHD/ADHD_DHH_RspnseRsltn39.pdf ) found that 35.8 percent of ten-year-old white boys were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and prescribed predominantly stimulant medications, which an FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) medical reviewer found cause hallucinations, mania, and psychosis at a rate of two to five per hundred person years ( see http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/briefing/2006-4210b_11_01_AdverseEvents.pdf and http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/minutes/2006-4210m_Minutes%20PAC%20March%2022%202006.pdf ).  The FDA's medical reviewer also noted that the psychotic side effects of ADHD stimulants occur in regular doses, in children with no risk indicators or other psychiatric history besides ADHD, and at a rate that cannot be considered rare.

Whereas in some places in our country nearly two out of every five ten-year-old boys are being medicated with psychosis-inducing drugs for ADHD, the estimated rate of ADHD diagnosis in Europe is less than one percent ( https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/suffer-the-children/201203/why-french-kids-dont-have-adhd ).  Over-diagnosis and over-medication of psychiatric disorders is a decidedly American problem.

Similarly, while Britain was banning antidepressants for kids due to an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior associated with the drugs, the FDA threatened the same medical reviewer, Dr. Andrew Mosholder, with an internal investigation, and prevented him from presenting his findings that the drugs doubled suicidality in kids at a Pediatric Advisory Committee meeting ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-108hhrg96099/html/CHRG-108hhrg96099.htm ).

According to the DSM-5,"Between 7 percent and 25 percent of individuals presenting with a first episode of psychosis in different settings are reported to have substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder."

Big Pharma invented and has successfully marketed the unproven theory that mental illness is the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain.  Swallowing this marketing theory hook, line and sinker, Americans are also swallowing psychotropic pills -- and shoveling them into their children's mouths -- at rates dwarfing other nations. 

Ironically, there is evidence that psychotropic drugs derive their action precisely by creating a chemical imbalance in the brain, according to former NIMH Director Dr. Steven Hyman ( http://search.proquest.com/openview/5610c361a22516dda3dc72bb25f5371e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar ).  Psychiatric medications, he wrote, "create perturbations in neurotransmitter functions."  The brain must then compensate to adapt to "alterations in the environment."  Chronic administration of the drugs, he added, cause "substantial and long-lasting alterations in neural function." 

Referring to his own LSD trip, immediate past President of the APA, Dr. Jeffrey Lieberman, wrote: "My [LSD] trip did produce one lasting insight, though--one that I remain grateful for to this day...I marveled at the fact that [if] such an incredibly minute amount of a chemical...could so dramatically alter my cognition, the chemistry of the brain must be susceptible to pharmacologic manipulations in other ways, including ways that could be therapeutic."  ( http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dj-jaffe/book-review-shrinks-the-u_b_6924810.html )

We, as a nation, are reaping the fruits of this historically unprecedented, massive-scale experimentation on the chemistry of the human brain. 

When most mass shooters were taking psychotropic drugs, it's an insult to what's left of our collectively numbed intelligence to suggest that more psychotropic drugs are the answer to mass shootings.  If psychotropic drugs were the answer, then the astronomical increase in Americans' use of psychiatric drugs should have led to a dramatic decrease in the number of mass shootings, not an increase.  Experience shows that more mental health treatment with psychiatric drugs will lead to more mass murder, not less.

Take, for instance, the case of Bradley Stone.  Not unlike Charlie Gordon in Flowers for Algernon, Mr. Stone might once have been considered a darling example of the shining success of mental health diversion courts and Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) of the kind advocated by Rep. Tim Murphy (R-PA) in his proposed Helping Families in Mental Health Crisis Act (HR 2646) - that is, until Mr. Stone shot and chopped up seven people, before poisoning himself with the Risperdal and Trazodone he was prescribed and then stabbing himself ( http://www.montcopa.org/ArchiveCenter/ViewFile/Item/2128 ). Or there's Spc Ivan Lopez-Lopez who in the months preceding the second deadly Ft. Hood shooting spree voluntarily met with a half dozen Army mental health providers at Ft. Bliss, Ft. Leonard Wood, and Ft. Hood on ten occasions, dutifully refilling prescriptions for psychotropic medications ( http://www.pharmabuse.com/blogs/98 ).

At the very least, we know psychotropic drugs do not prevent mass killings, since toxicology results for most of the aforementioned dead mass shooters revealed the prescribed drugs were still in their blood.  Moreover, the FDA has received 765 reports of homicide as a side effect of psychotropic drugs, many of which were multiple homicides.  Just as the now well-established link between antidepressants and suicidality, which prompted a black box warning, was once covered up, the extent of the temporal link between psychotropic drugs and violence toward others has been concealed from the American public.  Now, thanks to a recent Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit filed against the FDA, we're obtaining the relevant adverse event report records, and they will be made public for the first time.

The FDA adverse event records support recent scientific studies finding a link between psychotropic medications and homicide ( see http://ki.se/en/news/study-analyses-link-between-psychotropic-drugs-and-homicide-risk and http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0015337 ).    

U.S. taxpayers should not spend more money on mental health programs promising to prevent mass shooting tragedies, because such undoubtedly costly programs, by the very nature of their promise, would be fraudulent.  If anything, Congress should investigate whether psychotropic drugs, which have been demonstrated time and time again as being incapable of preventing homicide, may actually be living up to their scary label warnings.

The guns versus mental health debate is a red herring.  They are two sides of the same coin - emphasis on coin, as in money.  The gun lobby and the pharma lobby are a marriage made in heaven (or, more aptly, hell).  We're hearing from the gun lobby that more guns would help victims protect themselves from psychotic mass shooters.  We're hearing from the pharma lobby that forced mental health treatment with psychotropic drugs, which the mass shooters were already voluntarily taking, would prevent mass shootings.    

The only lobby seemingly letting a crisis go to waste is the entertainment lobby.  We haven't heard that more violent video games and movies would prevent mass shootings -- yet.